By Anthony Lopez
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Extra resources for A Complete course in canning and related processes
In 1961 flame sterilization (using direct gas flame heating) was introduced, as was the continuous hydrostatic pressure sterilizer. Today, with computers being able to control equipment we have many more options and more precise control. There are combinations of steam and air, raining water, and rotation. All of these developments have as their objective to improve temperature distribution and product heating. Modern retorts can process at temperatures up to 145 °C, yielding faster throughput.
Foods can pick up or lose moisture to the environment as a direct result of the relative humidity, as well as allow growth of micro-organisms on the surface of foods. Foods with low water activity will pick up moisture from the atmosphere until equilibrium is reached. 2 The effect of pH value on the growth of micro-organisms One of the most important properties of food associated with microbiological food spoilage is the pH of the product. This intensity of acid, or pH value, should not be confused with the amount of acid present in the food.
January 1953). A simplified procedure for thermal process evaluation. Food Technology, 7(1), 1–6. xxxiv Introduction Stumbo, C. R. (1965). Thermobacteriology in food processing. New York and London: Academic Press. Teixeira, A. , Dixon, J. , Zahradnik, J. , & Zinsmeister, G. E. (1969). Computer determination of spore survival distribution in thermally-processed conduction heated foods. Food Technology, 23, 352–354. Tucker, G. S. (2008). History of the minimum botulinum cook for low-acid canned foods.
A Complete course in canning and related processes by Anthony Lopez