By Benedict de Spinoza, R. H. M. Elwes
Written by means of the Dutch thinker Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus or Theologico-Political Treatise used to be the most debatable texts of the early smooth interval. It used to be a preemptive security of Spinoza's later paintings, Ethics, released posthumously in 1677, for which he expected harsh feedback. The treatise was once released anonymously in 1670 by means of Jan Rieuwertsz in Amsterdam. so as to shield the writer and writer from political retribution, the identify web page pointed out the town of book as Hamburg and the writer as Henricus Kunraht. It was once written in New Latin instead of the vernacular Dutch in an try and steer clear of censorship by means of the secular Dutch experts.
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That it is universal or common to all men, for we have deduced it from universal human nature. (41) II. That it does not depend on the truth of any historical narrative whatsoever, for inasmuch as this natural Divine law is comprehended solely by the consideration of human nature, it is plain that we can conceive it as existing as well in Adam as in any other man, as well in a man living among his fellows, as in a man who lives by himself. (42) The truth of a historical narrative, however assured, cannot give us the knowledge nor consequently the love of God, for love of God springs from knowledge of Him, and knowledge of Him should be derived from general ideas, in themselves certain and known, so that the truth of a historical narrative is very far from being a necessary requisite for our attaining our highest good.
98) This obviously agrees with the verse of Solomon, already quoted, "The instruction of fools is folly," so that it is easy to understand why Paul says that the wicked are without excuse. (99) As every man sows so shall he reap: out of evil, evils necessarily spring, unless they be wisely counteracted. (100) Thus we see that Scripture literally approves of the light of natural reason and the natural Divine law, and I have fulfilled the promises made at the beginning of this chapter. Chapter 5.
11) The general consideration of fate and the concatenation of causes would aid us very little in forming and arranging our ideas concerning particular questions. (12) Let us add that as to the actual coordination and concatenation of things, that is how things are ordained and linked together, we are obviously ignorant; therefore, it is more profitable for right living, nay, it is necessary for us to consider things as contingent. (13) So much about law in the abstract. (14) Now the word law seems to be only applied to natural phenomena by analogy, and is commonly taken to signify a command which men can either obey or neglect, inasmuch as it restrains human nature within certain originally exceeded limits, and therefore lays down no rule beyond human strength.
A Theologico-Political Treatise by Benedict de Spinoza, R. H. M. Elwes