By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent figuring out of the results of torsion on concrete contributors is key to the secure, most economical layout of strengthened and prestressed concrete contributors. This document starts off with a quick and systematic precis of the 180-year historical past of torsion of structural concrete participants, new and up to date theories and their functions, and a ancient assessment outlining the improvement of study on torsion of structural concrete contributors. historic theories and truss versions contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the 3-dimensional (3-D) area truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box conception (CFT) by way of Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) by means of Hsu and Mo.
This record emphasizes that it's necessary to the research of torsion in strengthened concrete that individuals may still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s pressure circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) determine the constitutive relationships of fabrics akin to the “softened” stress-strain dating of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain courting of metal bars. The habit of participants subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This file bargains with layout concerns, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and dimension results.
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Additional resources for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
Curves for Specimens A1 and B1 (no torsional redistribution) can be divided into three stages: 1. The first stage represents elastic behavior before cracking. 2. The second stage is where crack development caused the torsional stiffness to decrease and the torsional moment remained essentially constant whereas the load increased. When the load reached a magnitude at which the floor beam bottom longitudinal reinforcement yielded, as indicated by � in the figures, the third stage began. 3. In the third stage, a torsional plastic hinge developed under the load and accelerated the twist deformation of the spandrel beam.
1—Test setup for combined torsion and flexure. two reasons: first, researchers understood that such studies would be prudent. Second, the beams subjected to combined T and M are easier than other combinations in testing. In the absence of shearing forces, a four-point loading arrangement is easily modified to apply constant torsional moment along with the bending moment in the central portion of a beam specimen. 1 shows that the central loads in a four-point load test setup can be applied at an eccentricity e, subjecting the test region of the specimen to a uniform combination of torsion and flexure.
1R-12) 43 Fig. 1a—Series A (Hsu and Burton 1974). ) Fig. 1b—Series B (Hsu and Burton 1974). ) these two specimens closely matched the design assumption of 52 percent torsional redistribution. Specimens A5 and B3 were designed for 100 percent or complete torsion redistribution, as implied in ACI 318 commentary. As shown in Fig. 1b, torsion resisted at the joint stayed constant after cracking occurred. After cracking, the load increased significantly, almost doubling, at the same torsion value until failure.
ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445