By Norman J. G. Pounds
The relevant subject of this e-book is the altering spatial trend of human actions over the last 2,500 years of Europe's background. Professor kilos argues that 3 components have made up our minds the destinations of human actions: the surroundings, the attitudes and kinds of social association of the numerous diversified peoples of Europe and finally, the degrees of expertise. in the wide framework of the interrelationships of surroundings, society and know-how, a number of very important issues pursued from the 5th century BC to the early 20th century: cost and agriculture, the expansion of towns, the improvement of producing and the position of alternate. Underlying each one of those topics are the discussions of political association and inhabitants. even though the booklet relies partly of Professor Pound's magisterial 3 volumes An historic Geography of Europe (1977, 1980, 1985), it used to be written specially for college students and readers attracted to a normal survey of the topic.
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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79)
Nevertheless, up to half the grain supply of Athens was imported, chiefly from the coastlands of the Black Sea. Large estates did exist, but they were rare. That belonging to one, Phainippos, had from seven hundred to a thousand acres and must have been worked by slave labor. But the family farm was as a general rule within the range of thirty to fifty acres. Cultivation was on a two-field system, the fields being cultivated in alternate years. The fields themselves were almost certainly small and probably square.
VEGETATION OF EUROPE As the climate grew warmer and the ice sheets melted away, coniferous forest invaded the subarctic waste which covered much of Europe, and was followed as it spread northward by broad-leaved trees. , the socalled Atlantic phase, deciduous trees - beech, oak, elm, ash, according to the soil - covered much of Europe (Fig. 2). Then the climate became somewhat cooler and drier. The boundary between coniferous and broad-leaved forest retreated, and conifers reasserted themselves on higher ground and on the sandy soils of the northeast.
It was one of growth rather than of change. The classical civilizations were not particularly inventive. Their technologies were those of late Iron Age Europe beyond which they contributed little. Greek genius had been in the direction of literature and the plastic arts. The Romans' energies were directed toward organization and administration. All that they did was on a grand scale, but they did little that other European peoples could not have done had they possessed the vision, the initiative, and the drive.
An Historical Geography of Europe (Soviet and East European Studies, 79) by Norman J. G. Pounds